Fluid Machines - a.y. 2016/2017
SSD: ING-IND/08 and ING-IND/09
Period (Year/Semester): III/I
Required/expected prior knowledge: Applied thermodynamics.
The student acquires expertise in the primary thermal engine systems, with particular reference to methods for increasing their efficiency, in relation to the technological constraints of the components and the purposes for which the plant is to be used. To this aim, mechanical work exchange in dynamic machines is described, highlighting the operating limits and regulation techniques of the components. Further, information on the environmental impact of thermal systems is provided. Finally, the student learns the operating principles and techniques for controlling internal combustion engines, hydroelectric plants, pumps and compressors.
After completion of the course, the student has a foundation on Fluid Machines and is able to apply the basic principles, the laws, and the pertinent equations to understand the fluid machines’ operation for required engineering applications
Tables of contents:
Energy sources. Classification of fluid machines. Thermodynamics recalls: 1st and 2nd principles of thermodynamics; the mean temperatures of heat addition and rejection. Definition of the ideal, limit and real cycle. Energy analysis.
Primary thermal power plants: Efficiency chain, global efficiency, specific heat consumption and specific fuel consumption.
Internal efficiency. Adiabatic and polytropic efficiency. Recovery and counter-recovery work exchange components.
Steam and gas turbine plants. Methods for efficiency increase. Main components of steam and gas turbines plants: condenser, steam generator, regenerator, degasser. Gas turbine combustion chambers.
Combined gas-steam and cogeneration plants: heat recovery steam generators with multiple pressure levels.
Introduction to the Concept of Exergy and of Exergetic analysis. Selection of a cogeneration plant and performance indexes.
Working exchange modes in turbomachines: Euler equation. Steam turbines: action and reaction machines, velocity triangles, succession of stages, regulation, power limits.
Spark-Ignition and Compression Ignition Internal combustion engines: combustion, power regulation, supercharging.
Hydraulic power plants and Hydraulic Turbines: Pelton, Francis and Kaplan. Accumulation and pumping hydroelectric plants.
Volumetric and dynamic pumps. Cavitation. Choice of a pump. Dynamic and volumetric compressors.
Numerical exercises on all of the above topics.
Frontal lessons. Exercises with the aid of didactic programs.
Textbooks and learning aids:
Notes and slides distributed by the teacher;
Renato della Volpe MACCHINE Liguori Editore-Napoli
Renato della Volpe ESERCIZI DI MACCHINE Liguori Editore-Napoli
Surnames A-L. Assessment will be written and oral. Questions are: numerical exercises
SurnamesM-Z. Assessment will be oral. The oral examination includes the discussion of numerical exercises given by the Teacher and carried out independently by the student